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Trade Secrets

Table of Contents

     I Making the decision to export

1. Why should a business person export?
2. What are the advantages and risks of export business? 
3. What questios should be answered before making the decision to export? 
4. What is involved in a typical export process? 
5. What are the usual mistakes made by new exporters? 
6. How can a businessperson determine an acceptable product to export? 
7. What are the different types of exports incentives given by the government?

    II Export Planning

8 .How can an exporter keep track of latest export developments in international markets?
9 . What are the essential elements of a business plan?
10. Who canhelp with market rearch and planning to export?
11. What are trading houses and how can they help in export?
12. What are the registration requriments for getting an export license?
13. What are The agencies promoting exports for SME's?
14. Can Export Promotion Bureau help in odentifying partcipation in trade fairs/exhibitions and what are the associated costs?
15. What help can commercial attaches abroad & foreign missions in Pakistan provide for promotion of export business?
16. Where can an exporter get information about foreign export trade consultants?

    III Identifying country markets

17. How can country market rearch be undertaken?
18. What are the different ways of entering an export market?
19. How can an exporter establish his/her brand in the intercational market?
20. How can an exporter open a display center aboard?
21. What sales and distribution channels can be used in different world markets?
22. What are the advantages of exporting to countries that offer preferences under Generalized System of Preferences(GSP)?
23. Is there any quota for the product in target country and what are the restrictions and how to handel them?

    IV Customer Targeting

24. Who can help the exporter in finding the buyers?
25. What internet sources list foreign buyers, contract, foreign agents and distributors?
26. What do buyers look for when making a decsion to purchase?

    V Buyer Search Through Internet

27. What Are The Appropriate Strategies And Tactics Necessary For Communication In The International Market?
28 How Can An Exporter Use The Internet To Promote His/Her Product?
29. What Is E-Commerce And What Is Its Role For Export Business?
30. What Is The Average Cost Of Developing And Hosting A Web Page And What Are Its Advantages For Export Business?

    VI Cultural Issues

31. What Are The Requirements For Obtaining A Business Travel Visa?
32 . What Are The Rules Of Business Etiquette When Doing Business In Different Countries?
33 .How Does Culture Effect The Exporter's Business Abroad?
34 .What Safety Precautions Should Be Undertaken Before And When Traveling Abroad?
35 .Does Gender Make A Difference In Doing Business Abroad?

    VII Agents & Distributors

36 .How Does The Exporter Find Information On Foreign Representatives?
37 .What Criteria Should Be Used In The Selection Of A Commission Agent Or A Distributor?
38 .How Is The Credit Worthiness Of A Foreign Buyer Evaluated?
39 .Is There Any System For Minimizing Risks Involved In Distribution?

    VIII Contract Documents

40 .What Are The Export Contracts And Why Are They Required?
41 .What Should Be The Terms And Conditions Of An Export Contract?
42 .What Are The Specific Clauses To Be Included In Commission Agent And Foreign Distributorship Contracts?
43 .Legally What Can Happen If The Commission Agent/Distributor Agreement Is Terminated?
44 .What Are Form ‘E’, Bill Of Lading And Commercial Invoice?
45 .How Does The Exporter Assess If The Export Documentation Is Correct?
46 .In Which Countries Pakistan’s Certificate Of Origin Is Recognized?
47 .What Happens If The Buyer Finds Delivery Unacceptable?
48 .Who Is Responsible For Force De Majeure, Damaged, Or Missing Goods?

    IX Quality

49 .How To Get ISO 9000 Certification And How Much Would It Cost?
50 .How Does The ISO 9000 Management Standards Series Effect The Quality Of The Export Product?
51 .How Does The ISO 14000 Environment Management Standards Effect The Quality Of The Export Product?
52 .What Is The CE Mark And Its Certification Process?
53 .What Are Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCPS)?
54 .Which Are The Inspecting And Consultancy Organizations To Help In Improving A Product’s Quality?

    X Pricing

55 .How Should A Costing Sheet Be Prepared?
56 .Where Can An Exporter Obtain A Listing Of Product Prices In Different Countries And Evaluate His/Her Product's Competitiveness?
57 .How Can Issues Of Currency Fluctuations, Rate Of Inflation Be Considered & How Can These Help In Defining Real Costs?
58 .How Should An Exporter Respond To An Unsolicited Inquiry From Overseas & What Details Must A Good Price Quotation Contain?
59 .Does Rebate Apply On Product/Commodity Export And How Can An Exporter Apply For It?
60 .Does Time Of Local Harvest In Other Exporting Countries Impact On International Price Of The Products To Be Exported?

    XI Financing & Payments

61 .What Is Export Re-Financing And How Are Needs Assessed?
62 .What Methods Of Payment Are Commonly Used In International Transactions?
63 .What Is A Letter Of Credit And How Can An Exporter Use It When Exporting?
64 .How Can The Exporter Ensure Payment Against A Letter Of Credit?
65 .What Is DA (Documents Against Acceptance) And What Are Its Benefits?
66 .How Does An Exporter Choose A Bank Best Suited For Export Financing Needs?
67 .What Documents Should The Exporter Prepare For A Bank When Seeking Financing?
68 .What Are The Common Discrepancies Reported By The Banks When Dealing With Documents?
69 .What Are Financial Guarantees And How Can An Exporter Provide Security Or Collateral?
70 .For What Other Purpose Can A Letter Of Credit Be Used?
71 .How Can An Exporter Be Helped In International Disputes With Importers?
72 .How Can An Exporter Get His/Her Claims Processed Through The International Justice System?
73 .What Is Export Credit Insurance And How Is It Useful?
74 .When Will Pakistan Start Export Credit Guarantee For SMEs?

    XII Packaging & Labeling

75 .What Are The International Standards For Export Packaging?
76 .What Factors Should Be Kept In Mind For The Most Effective Packaging?
77 .What Is Eco Labeling?
78 .What Does The Exporter Have To Check Before Delivering The Goods To The Forwarding Agent?
79 .Does The Target Market Influence The Packaging Of The Product?
80 .How Does The Distribution Chain Effect Packaging Requirements?
81 .How Can An Exporter Protect His/Her Brand, Logo, Trademark And Patent In Export Market?

    XIII Transportation & Documentation

82 .What Are The Shipping Documents Involved In The Transportation Of Goods?
83 .Does The Exporter Have To Insure His/Her Goods Before They Are Exported?
84 .Who Is Responsible For Losses Incurred During Transportation?

    XIV Cleaning & Forwarding Agents

85 .What Is The Role Of Clearing And Forwarding Agents In The Export Business?
86 .How Can An Exporter Select An Appropriate Freight-Forwarding Agency?
87 .What Is The Best Mode Of Transportation For Product/Commodity?

    XV Importing Inputs For Exports

88 .What Are The Government Schemes To Help The Exporter Import Inputs For Export Production?
89 .Why Are Government’s Temporary Import Schemes Not Utilized By Small Exporters?
90 .How Can The Exporter Best Manage Purchase And Supply Of Inputs Needed For Export Production?
91 .What Does An Exporter Need To Do To Clear His / Her Imported Inputs For Export-Oriented Products?

    XVI Environmental Issues

92 .Are There Any Specific Environmental Limitations On Export Of Textile Products (Azo Dyes)?
93 .Are There Any Environmental Limitations On Export Of Leather Products (Chemical Disposal)?
94 .What Is Quarantine, Why Is It Necessary And Which Department Handles It?
95 .What Are Quarantine Laws Of Pakistan For Major Export Markets?
96 .What Is Pesticide Residue And What Is Its Importance For Agricultural Exports (Contents In Ppm)?

    XVII Human Resource Development

97 .Where Can Export Trade Development-Related Training Be Received?
98 .Does The Government Conduct Seminars And Workshops To Educate Manufacturers And Traders For Export?
99 .How Does Child Labor Effect Exports And How Can An Exporter Certify His / Her Products Against Child Labor?

    XVIII Ministries & Government Departments

100 .Does The Exporter Need A License To Export His/Her Product?
101 .Which Departments And Ministries Can Help In Completing The Required Documentation?
102 .What Are The Inspection Requirements Of Customs For Export?
103 .Where Can An Exporter Find Information To Ensure That Their Shipments Comply With The Export & Import Regulations?
104 .What Goods Are Exempted From Pre-Shipment Inspection?
105 .Where Can An Exporter Get Information On Rebate?
106 .How Does An Exporter Find Out About International Tax Laws?
107 .Who Pays Duty On The Products That Are Exported?
108 .What Forms Of Barter Trade Exist?
109 .Where Can An Exporter Get Complete Information On The Requirements Of Documents For Export Shipment?

    XIX World Trade Organization

110 .What Is World Trade Organization And What Does It Do?
111 .What Benefits Can Smes Derive From The WTO System?
112 .What Are Incoterms And Most Common Problems Associated With Them?
113 .What Is The Importance Of The Uruguay Round?
114 .What Are The Main Provisions Of The Agreement On Sanitary And Phytosanitary Regulations (SPS)?
115 .What Are Trims And What Are Its Implications?
116 .What Is The Agreement On Trade-Related Aspects Of Intellectual Property Rights (Trips)?
117 .What Minimum Standards Of Protection Does The Agreement On Trips Lay Down For Different Rights?
118 .What Minimum Periods Of Protection Does The Agreement On Trips Provide For Different Intellectual Property Rights?
119 .What Is General Agreement On Trade In Services (GATS) And What Are Its Main Provisions?
120 .What Is The Purpose Of The Agreement On Technical Barriers To Trade (TBT)?
121 .What Are The Main Objectives Of The Agreements On Agriculture, Textiles And Clothing?

    XX Sector Specific Issues

122 .What Is Meant By Tariff And Non-Tariff Barriers?
123 .What Are Tariffs And Quotas And What Are Their Specifications?
124 .What Are The Methods And Costs Involved In The Purchase Of Quotas?
125 .What Happens When Textile Quotas End In 2005?
126 .Are Special Certificates Required To Export Agricultural Goods?


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